As geographically stable as most cities are, their identities shift over time. Pittsburgh was the symbol of American muscle in the '50s and '60s; today it’s a poster child for urban decay. New Orleans evolved naturally from frontier military port to bead-strewn decadence hotspot…then a disaster took it straight to Desperation City, literally overnight. How people feel about a city can mean all the difference between the heaven of tourism millions and rising property values and the hell of the butt of national jokes (see Pittsburgh, Cleveland, etc.) Identity is big business, and that means branding.